Countries to buy citizenship – Programs list 2024

Published: 20 May 2024

In the modern era marked by interconnected economies, the idea of acquiring citizenship through investment has surfaced as an appealing choice for many. Various nations provide either citizenship or residency programs in exchange for substantial economic contributions, presenting distinct sets of prerequisites, perks, and costs. This discussion will delve into the myriad citizenship by investment programs globally, highlighting their critical attributes and variations. From the sun-drenched shores of Malta and the lush, exotic setting of Dominica to the vibrant urban landscapes of Egypt.

Global Citizenship Investment Initiatives

Programs worldwide that facilitate citizenship through financial contributions enable individuals to legally secure a new nationality by making significant economic investments in the destination country. These schemes are particularly appealing for those looking to boost their international mobility, unlock business prospects, or enhance their personal safety.

Caribbean Citizenship Initiatives: Choices and Features

The charm of the Caribbean, known for its untouched beaches and crystal-clear waters, extends into the citizenship by investment (CBI) sector. These initiatives provide a route to citizenship contingent on substantial economic contributions to the host nation. We will examine the choices and attributes of various Caribbean CBI initiatives.

Dominica’s Affordable Citizenship Option

Initiated in 1993, Dominica’s CBI program stands out as one of the most economical, with a starting investment of $100,000 USD. This investment secures visa-free travel to 143 countries and integrates investors into a nation celebrated for its scenic landscapes and rich cultural heritage.

St. Kitts and Nevis: A Trailblazing Program

Pioneering the CBI initiative in 1984, St. Kitts and Nevis offers one of the oldest such programs. With a starting investment of $250,000 USD, investors gain visa-free access to 155 countries. This program supports the nation’s infrastructure and populace, showcasing its dedication to economic progress and investor advantages.

Vanuatu: Quickest Path to Citizenship

Despite its location outside the Caribbean, Vanuatu presents a CBI program with distinct appeal. Launched in 2014, it offers the quickest route to citizenship among commonwealth nations, granting nationality within 3-6 months and visa-free access to 98 countries for a minimum investment of $130,000 USD.

Each program provides specific benefits, from the affordability of Dominica’s option to the longstanding reputation of St. Kitts and Nevis and the swift processing in Vanuatu. Investors need to weigh their personal and financial objectives when selecting the appropriate program, as each offers a unique mix of benefits, investment thresholds, and international access.

European Nations Providing Citizenship by Investment

In Europe, various nations attract foreign investors through citizenship-by-investment programs, typically necessitating substantial investments in the nation’s development funds, real estate, or government securities. The minimum investment varies across different countries and programs.

For instance, Austria provides citizenship to individuals who have demonstrated exceptional contributions in fields like science, sports, arts, or philanthropy. It ranks fourth globally in terms of passport power. Acquiring Austrian citizenship generally takes between 12-36 months, with costs for a family starting at 4 million EUR.

Malta, North Macedonia, Turkey (a transcontinental country), and Cyprus (program currently paused) also offer citizenship through financial investments.

These investment programs offer citizenship in return for economic contributions. The process for acquiring citizenship through these routes is typically faster and less bureaucratic than traditional immigration methods, making them attractive for individuals and families seeking to establish dual citizenship for themselves and future generations.

These programs also provide a host of citizenship benefits, including visa-free entry to numerous countries, favorable tax conditions, and potential significant investment returns.

Understanding Malta’s Citizenship Program

Established in 2014, Malta’s Individual Investor Programme is a robust option for international investors looking to obtain citizenship within an EU member state. This program is recognized as one of the strongest in the field.

To acquire Maltese citizenship, applicants must make substantial financial contributions that bolster the National Growth Fund and other government-sanctioned projects.

The Maltese government requires three primary investments for citizenship:

  1. A donation of either €750,000 EUR for one year of residency or €600,000 EUR for three years.
  2. A real estate investment, either a purchase of €700,000 EUR held for five years or a rental agreement with a minimum annual rent of €16,000 EUR.
  3. A charitable donation of €10,000 EUR.

Applicants must also meet specific eligibility criteria, including maintaining a clean criminal record and providing necessary documentation to immigration authorities.

Real estate investment: Great options for new citizenship

Investment in real estate is a widely chosen method for acquiring citizenship across various nations. This approach is particularly appealing as it involves a tangible asset that typically maintains its value, even during economic downturns and global uncertainties.Many nations have established citizenship through investment programs, allowing foreign investors to gain citizenship by making substantial investments in real estate. These countries leverage foreign investment to boost their economies, generate employment, and contribute to their national development funds.

Citizenship by Investment Programs: Various options

The specifics of real estate investment programs differ from one country to another, each setting its own criteria and minimum investment thresholds.Typically, these programs necessitate a significant financial contribution in residential properties or government-sanctioned projects. The minimum investment varies widely, ranging from $100,000 to more than $2 million, depending on the country and the specific citizenship program.

Advantages of Real Estate Investment for Citizenship

Investing in real estate to obtain citizenship offers numerous advantages. Investors often enjoy visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to many countries, depending on the passport issued by the country from which they obtain citizenship. Additionally, many of these countries offer a favorable tax environment, exempting wealth, gift, inheritance, foreign income, or capital gains taxes.Furthermore, these investment programs typically allow the inclusion of family members in the application, extending the benefits of citizenship to spouses, children, and dependent relatives, thereby securing advantages for future generations.

The Process of Applying for Investment: Based Citizenship

The application process generally involves making the initial investment, submitting necessary documentation to immigration officials, and fulfilling specific requirements such as possessing a clean criminal record. Some countries might also require a bank deposit or a non-refundable contribution to the country’s national development fund or an economic diversification fund. Upon approval, investors and their families are granted citizenship, which often includes the possibility of dual citizenship, allowing them to retain their original nationality.

Comparing Investment Thresholds Across Different Countries

The minimum capital required to participate in various citizenship programs, known as investment thresholds, can vary significantly across countries. This is particularly evident in citizenship by investment programs, where foreign investors can gain citizenship or residency by making a significant financial contribution.For example, Caribbean countries like Dominica and Antigua & Barbuda have set their minimum investment for citizenship at $130,000, typically directed into the country’s national development fund to finance various projects. Conversely, St. Kitts and Nevis, known for its longstanding citizenship by investment program, requires a higher minimum investment of $250,000.

Legal Procedures for Obtaining Citizenship by Investment

The legal procedures for obtaining citizenship through investment are structured and meticulous, designed to ensure the integrity of the program and the suitability of the applicants. These procedures typically involve making the required investment, submitting an application with various documents, undergoing a thorough due diligence process to assess the applicant’s background, and, upon approval, being granted citizenship. This often provides added benefits like visa-free travel to many countries, including those in the European Union and the Schengen area.

Family Inclusion in Citizenship by Investment Programs

Citizenship by investment programs (CIPs) offer a unique opportunity for investors to secure a second passport, which can enhance their global mobility, access to education and healthcare, and business opportunities. One of the most appealing aspects of these programs is the provision for family inclusion, which allows not just the primary applicant but also their family members to acquire citizenship, thereby securing a better future for them.

Understanding Family Inclusion in CIPs

Family inclusion in citizenship by investment programs is designed to extend the benefits of citizenship to the immediate and sometimes extended family of the investor. This inclusion varies significantly from one program to another, both in terms of who qualifies as a family member and the additional costs involved.

Eligibility Criteria for Family Members

The eligibility criteria for including family members in CIPs can vary widely among countries. Here are some common provisions:

  • Spouses and Children: Nearly all CIPs allow for the inclusion of spouses and dependent children. However, the age limit for dependent children can vary. For instance, in Caribbean nations like Dominica and St. Kitts and Nevis, dependent children under the age of 30 can be included.
  • Parents and Grandparents: Many programs also allow for the inclusion of dependent parents and grandparents. The age criteria for these dependents can vary, with some programs requiring them to be over 55 years old.
  • Siblings: Some CIPs extend eligibility to the siblings of the main applicant. These siblings often need to be unmarried and without children, and sometimes under a certain age.

Additional Costs and Investment Requirements

Including family members in a citizenship application generally increases the total investment required. This could be in the form of a higher non-refundable donation or an increased investment in real estate or government bonds. The specific financial requirements depend on the number of family members included and the particular rules of the citizenship program.

Documentation and Due Diligence

All family members included in the citizenship application must meet specific eligibility criteria, which typically involve providing necessary documentation to immigration officials. This documentation may include passports, birth certificates, marriage certificates, and proof of relationship to the main applicant. Additionally, all adult family members must undergo a due diligence process, which includes a background check to ensure they have no criminal records.

Benefits of Family Inclusion

The inclusion of family members in citizenship by investment programs offers several benefits:

  • Visa-Free Travel: Family members gain visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to numerous countries, enhancing their global mobility.
  • Education and Healthcare: Access to better educational institutions and healthcare facilities in the host country and other countries where they have rights as citizens.
  • Economic Opportunities: Opportunities for business expansion and employment in the host country and other countries that have favorable treaties with it.
  • Security and Stability: A second citizenship can provide a safety net against political or economic instability in the family’s home country.

The Evolving Landscape of Passport Rankings and Citizenship by Investment

The landscape of global travel and citizenship is undergoing significant transformations, driven by the dynamic interplay of geopolitical shifts, evolving international relations, and changes in visa policies. At the forefront of these changes are the passport rankings and citizenship by investment programs, which are increasingly recognized for their potential to stimulate economic growth and attract foreign investment.

The Changing Face of Passport Rankings

Passport rankings, which assess the travel freedom afforded to citizens of various countries, have witnessed notable fluctuations over the years. Traditionally dominated by countries like Singapore and Japan, the rankings have seen a shift, with European countries like Austria now offering their citizens visa-free access to 190 destinations. This evolution in passport rankings is indicative of broader geopolitical trends and the ongoing adjustments in global visa policies.

The Rise of Citizenship by Investment Programs

Citizenship by investment programs are gaining traction as a strategic economic tool for countries seeking to enhance their economic profiles and attract foreign capital. These programs allow individuals to obtain citizenship through significant financial investments, such as real estate purchases or contributions to national development funds.Countries across various continents, including emerging economies in Africa and Asia, are recognizing the benefits of these programs. Nations like Uzbekistan, Zimbabwe, El Salvador, Kenya, and Laos are either introducing or planning to introduce such initiatives, reflecting a global acknowledgment of their economic and strategic value.

Regulatory Oversight and International Standards

The expansion of citizenship by investment programs has necessitated stringent regulatory oversight to ensure they adhere to international standards and best practices. International agencies play a crucial role in this regard, ensuring that these programs operate transparently and equitably, and contribute positively to the host countries’ economic development while avoiding pitfalls such as money laundering and other illicit activities.

The Role of Professional Advisory Services

Professional international advisory firms, such as Imperial Citizenship, specializing in investor programs for residence and citizenship, are pivotal in navigating the complex landscape of citizenship by investment. These firms provide expert guidance to potential investors, ensuring compliance with legal requirements and optimizing the benefits of citizenship, such as visa-free travel, favorable tax regimes, and the potential for family inclusion and future generational benefits.


The future of passport rankings and citizenship by investment programs looks promising, with an expected increase in the number of countries adopting these schemes. As these programs become more integrated into the global economic and political fabric, they offer a unique opportunity not only for the investors seeking enhanced global mobility and security but also for host nations aiming to bolster their economic standing on the world stage.

In this evolving landscape, the role of international advisory services becomes increasingly important, ensuring that these programs achieve their intended benefits while maintaining high standards of integrity and contributing to global economic growth.

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